Source code for stable_baselines3.ppo.ppo

import warnings
from typing import Any, Dict, Optional, Type, TypeVar, Union

import numpy as np
import torch as th
from gym import spaces
from torch.nn import functional as F

from stable_baselines3.common.on_policy_algorithm import OnPolicyAlgorithm
from stable_baselines3.common.policies import ActorCriticCnnPolicy, ActorCriticPolicy, BasePolicy, MultiInputActorCriticPolicy
from stable_baselines3.common.type_aliases import GymEnv, MaybeCallback, Schedule
from stable_baselines3.common.utils import explained_variance, get_schedule_fn

SelfPPO = TypeVar("SelfPPO", bound="PPO")

[docs]class PPO(OnPolicyAlgorithm): """ Proximal Policy Optimization algorithm (PPO) (clip version) Paper: Code: This implementation borrows code from OpenAI Spinning Up ( and Stable Baselines (PPO2 from Introduction to PPO: :param policy: The policy model to use (MlpPolicy, CnnPolicy, ...) :param env: The environment to learn from (if registered in Gym, can be str) :param learning_rate: The learning rate, it can be a function of the current progress remaining (from 1 to 0) :param n_steps: The number of steps to run for each environment per update (i.e. rollout buffer size is n_steps * n_envs where n_envs is number of environment copies running in parallel) NOTE: n_steps * n_envs must be greater than 1 (because of the advantage normalization) See :param batch_size: Minibatch size :param n_epochs: Number of epoch when optimizing the surrogate loss :param gamma: Discount factor :param gae_lambda: Factor for trade-off of bias vs variance for Generalized Advantage Estimator :param clip_range: Clipping parameter, it can be a function of the current progress remaining (from 1 to 0). :param clip_range_vf: Clipping parameter for the value function, it can be a function of the current progress remaining (from 1 to 0). This is a parameter specific to the OpenAI implementation. If None is passed (default), no clipping will be done on the value function. IMPORTANT: this clipping depends on the reward scaling. :param normalize_advantage: Whether to normalize or not the advantage :param ent_coef: Entropy coefficient for the loss calculation :param vf_coef: Value function coefficient for the loss calculation :param max_grad_norm: The maximum value for the gradient clipping :param use_sde: Whether to use generalized State Dependent Exploration (gSDE) instead of action noise exploration (default: False) :param sde_sample_freq: Sample a new noise matrix every n steps when using gSDE Default: -1 (only sample at the beginning of the rollout) :param target_kl: Limit the KL divergence between updates, because the clipping is not enough to prevent large update see issue #213 (cf By default, there is no limit on the kl div. :param tensorboard_log: the log location for tensorboard (if None, no logging) :param policy_kwargs: additional arguments to be passed to the policy on creation :param verbose: Verbosity level: 0 for no output, 1 for info messages (such as device or wrappers used), 2 for debug messages :param seed: Seed for the pseudo random generators :param device: Device (cpu, cuda, ...) on which the code should be run. Setting it to auto, the code will be run on the GPU if possible. :param _init_setup_model: Whether or not to build the network at the creation of the instance """ policy_aliases: Dict[str, Type[BasePolicy]] = { "MlpPolicy": ActorCriticPolicy, "CnnPolicy": ActorCriticCnnPolicy, "MultiInputPolicy": MultiInputActorCriticPolicy, } def __init__( self, policy: Union[str, Type[ActorCriticPolicy]], env: Union[GymEnv, str], learning_rate: Union[float, Schedule] = 3e-4, n_steps: int = 2048, batch_size: int = 64, n_epochs: int = 10, gamma: float = 0.99, gae_lambda: float = 0.95, clip_range: Union[float, Schedule] = 0.2, clip_range_vf: Union[None, float, Schedule] = None, normalize_advantage: bool = True, ent_coef: float = 0.0, vf_coef: float = 0.5, max_grad_norm: float = 0.5, use_sde: bool = False, sde_sample_freq: int = -1, target_kl: Optional[float] = None, tensorboard_log: Optional[str] = None, policy_kwargs: Optional[Dict[str, Any]] = None, verbose: int = 0, seed: Optional[int] = None, device: Union[th.device, str] = "auto", _init_setup_model: bool = True, ): super().__init__( policy, env, learning_rate=learning_rate, n_steps=n_steps, gamma=gamma, gae_lambda=gae_lambda, ent_coef=ent_coef, vf_coef=vf_coef, max_grad_norm=max_grad_norm, use_sde=use_sde, sde_sample_freq=sde_sample_freq, tensorboard_log=tensorboard_log, policy_kwargs=policy_kwargs, verbose=verbose, device=device, seed=seed, _init_setup_model=False, supported_action_spaces=( spaces.Box, spaces.Discrete, spaces.MultiDiscrete, spaces.MultiBinary, ), ) # Sanity check, otherwise it will lead to noisy gradient and NaN # because of the advantage normalization if normalize_advantage: assert ( batch_size > 1 ), "`batch_size` must be greater than 1. See" if self.env is not None: # Check that `n_steps * n_envs > 1` to avoid NaN # when doing advantage normalization buffer_size = self.env.num_envs * self.n_steps assert buffer_size > 1 or ( not normalize_advantage ), f"`n_steps * n_envs` must be greater than 1. Currently n_steps={self.n_steps} and n_envs={self.env.num_envs}" # Check that the rollout buffer size is a multiple of the mini-batch size untruncated_batches = buffer_size // batch_size if buffer_size % batch_size > 0: warnings.warn( f"You have specified a mini-batch size of {batch_size}," f" but because the `RolloutBuffer` is of size `n_steps * n_envs = {buffer_size}`," f" after every {untruncated_batches} untruncated mini-batches," f" there will be a truncated mini-batch of size {buffer_size % batch_size}\n" f"We recommend using a `batch_size` that is a factor of `n_steps * n_envs`.\n" f"Info: (n_steps={self.n_steps} and n_envs={self.env.num_envs})" ) self.batch_size = batch_size self.n_epochs = n_epochs self.clip_range = clip_range self.clip_range_vf = clip_range_vf self.normalize_advantage = normalize_advantage self.target_kl = target_kl if _init_setup_model: self._setup_model() def _setup_model(self) -> None: super()._setup_model() # Initialize schedules for policy/value clipping self.clip_range = get_schedule_fn(self.clip_range) if self.clip_range_vf is not None: if isinstance(self.clip_range_vf, (float, int)): assert self.clip_range_vf > 0, "`clip_range_vf` must be positive, " "pass `None` to deactivate vf clipping" self.clip_range_vf = get_schedule_fn(self.clip_range_vf)
[docs] def train(self) -> None: """ Update policy using the currently gathered rollout buffer. """ # Switch to train mode (this affects batch norm / dropout) self.policy.set_training_mode(True) # Update optimizer learning rate self._update_learning_rate(self.policy.optimizer) # Compute current clip range clip_range = self.clip_range(self._current_progress_remaining) # Optional: clip range for the value function if self.clip_range_vf is not None: clip_range_vf = self.clip_range_vf(self._current_progress_remaining) entropy_losses = [] pg_losses, value_losses = [], [] clip_fractions = [] continue_training = True # train for n_epochs epochs for epoch in range(self.n_epochs): approx_kl_divs = [] # Do a complete pass on the rollout buffer for rollout_data in self.rollout_buffer.get(self.batch_size): actions = rollout_data.actions if isinstance(self.action_space, spaces.Discrete): # Convert discrete action from float to long actions = rollout_data.actions.long().flatten() # Re-sample the noise matrix because the log_std has changed if self.use_sde: self.policy.reset_noise(self.batch_size) values, log_prob, entropy = self.policy.evaluate_actions(rollout_data.observations, actions) values = values.flatten() # Normalize advantage advantages = rollout_data.advantages # Normalization does not make sense if mini batchsize == 1, see GH issue #325 if self.normalize_advantage and len(advantages) > 1: advantages = (advantages - advantages.mean()) / (advantages.std() + 1e-8) # ratio between old and new policy, should be one at the first iteration ratio = th.exp(log_prob - rollout_data.old_log_prob) # clipped surrogate loss policy_loss_1 = advantages * ratio policy_loss_2 = advantages * th.clamp(ratio, 1 - clip_range, 1 + clip_range) policy_loss = -th.min(policy_loss_1, policy_loss_2).mean() # Logging pg_losses.append(policy_loss.item()) clip_fraction = th.mean((th.abs(ratio - 1) > clip_range).float()).item() clip_fractions.append(clip_fraction) if self.clip_range_vf is None: # No clipping values_pred = values else: # Clip the difference between old and new value # NOTE: this depends on the reward scaling values_pred = rollout_data.old_values + th.clamp( values - rollout_data.old_values, -clip_range_vf, clip_range_vf ) # Value loss using the TD(gae_lambda) target value_loss = F.mse_loss(rollout_data.returns, values_pred) value_losses.append(value_loss.item()) # Entropy loss favor exploration if entropy is None: # Approximate entropy when no analytical form entropy_loss = -th.mean(-log_prob) else: entropy_loss = -th.mean(entropy) entropy_losses.append(entropy_loss.item()) loss = policy_loss + self.ent_coef * entropy_loss + self.vf_coef * value_loss # Calculate approximate form of reverse KL Divergence for early stopping # see issue #417: # and discussion in PR #419: # and Schulman blog: with th.no_grad(): log_ratio = log_prob - rollout_data.old_log_prob approx_kl_div = th.mean((th.exp(log_ratio) - 1) - log_ratio).cpu().numpy() approx_kl_divs.append(approx_kl_div) if self.target_kl is not None and approx_kl_div > 1.5 * self.target_kl: continue_training = False if self.verbose >= 1: print(f"Early stopping at step {epoch} due to reaching max kl: {approx_kl_div:.2f}") break # Optimization step self.policy.optimizer.zero_grad() loss.backward() # Clip grad norm th.nn.utils.clip_grad_norm_(self.policy.parameters(), self.max_grad_norm) self.policy.optimizer.step() if not continue_training: break self._n_updates += self.n_epochs explained_var = explained_variance(self.rollout_buffer.values.flatten(), self.rollout_buffer.returns.flatten()) # Logs self.logger.record("train/entropy_loss", np.mean(entropy_losses)) self.logger.record("train/policy_gradient_loss", np.mean(pg_losses)) self.logger.record("train/value_loss", np.mean(value_losses)) self.logger.record("train/approx_kl", np.mean(approx_kl_divs)) self.logger.record("train/clip_fraction", np.mean(clip_fractions)) self.logger.record("train/loss", loss.item()) self.logger.record("train/explained_variance", explained_var) if hasattr(self.policy, "log_std"): self.logger.record("train/std", th.exp(self.policy.log_std).mean().item()) self.logger.record("train/n_updates", self._n_updates, exclude="tensorboard") self.logger.record("train/clip_range", clip_range) if self.clip_range_vf is not None: self.logger.record("train/clip_range_vf", clip_range_vf)
[docs] def learn( self: SelfPPO, total_timesteps: int, callback: MaybeCallback = None, log_interval: int = 1, tb_log_name: str = "PPO", reset_num_timesteps: bool = True, progress_bar: bool = False, ) -> SelfPPO: return super().learn( total_timesteps=total_timesteps, callback=callback, log_interval=log_interval, tb_log_name=tb_log_name, reset_num_timesteps=reset_num_timesteps, progress_bar=progress_bar, )